The Knowm technology stack bridges the levels of abstraction required to realize an AI processor based on memristor synapses, connecting the dots from nanotechnology to applications.

Memristors are an enabling nanotechnology for a new AI computing technology stack

Knowm M-SDC memristors have openly demonstrated all physical properties required of our technology stack, including the important manufacturing properties of low cost, high yields and long shelf-life.

Knowm 1X16 Memristor Array Chip (Front) 2

Knowm memristor array chip

Differential pair memristors form a new type of synaptic computing element

Differential Pair Memristor Synapse Configurations

Differential pair memristor synapse configurations

A collection of synaptic elements form neuron-like computing circuits

Learning/programming and logic/inference operations reduce to the activation of a low-voltage analog circuit, eliminating memory-processing communication, improving speed and greatly reducing energy dissipation.

2-1 configuration differential pair memristor neuron

2-1 configuration differential pair memristor neuron

Information is encoded by integer tensor streams

A spike stream is a temporal sequence of spike patterns. A spike pattern is a collection of integers in a defined spike space. A spike tensor is a multi-dimensional array of spike streams.

Integer Spike Encoding

Integer Spike Encoding

Synaptic cores are collections of synapses that are partitioned into one or more neurons

Collections of addressable differential-pair memristor synapses form the primitive mixed memory-processing core from which learning/programming and inference/logic operations are realized. Many core types are possible based on synaptic addressing method and topology restrictions. Cores can be emulated by existing computing technology.

Example Synaptic Core Types

Example synaptic core types

Synaptic cores execute instructions on co-activated synaptic elements

Elemental instructions define electrical drive patterns across the terminals of co-activated memristor synapses. These instructions can result in modification of the synaptic state and are used for both learning/programming and inference/logic operations. Different underlying synapse circuits (1-2, 2-1, 1-2i, 2-1i) require different drive patterns to achieve the same functional effect, for example to increment the synaptic state high or low, decay its magnitude, etc.

kT-Core Instruction Set

Synaptic core instruction set

Operators are programs that execute synaptic instructions and other logic

Knowm Operator Interface

Operator Interface

synaptic core instruction set

Example synaptic core instruction set routine

Graphs are digraphs of operators

Operator Graph

Operator Graph

Example Knowm Graph

Example Knowm Graph

Graph Servers are network end-point resources for applications

Knowm Graph Server

Knowm Graph Server

Knowm anomaly is an example application built on the knowm technology stack

Some of these elements including guiding philosophy are further elaborated in this paper: https://arxiv.org/abs/1406.5633 / Taylor and Francis.

Alex Nugent

Alex Nugent

Alex Nugent is the CEO of Knowm Inc. He is an inventor and entrepreneur at the crossroads of natural self-organization, neuromemristive electronics and machine learning. He is an optimist and a problem solver and believes that Nature is the highest form of technology. He lives by the motto that "the best way to predict the future is to invent it."

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